A new reinforced MAC protocol for lifetime prolongation of reliable Wireless Body Area Network

Azouz Boufedah Badissi, abdesselam Babouri, mohamed benmohamed, Nacer Abouchi


Recent development of sensors and sensor networks has allowed the creation of new emerging systems which is used as promising solutions in several types of applications. Among which, wireless body area networks (WBANs) is an example that enable continuous monitoring of patients vital signs parameters in everyday life situations. Reliability and energy optimization are considered amongst the important and challenging issues in WBANs. The standard IEEE 802.15.4 is of paramount importance MAC (Media Access Control) protocol for medical sensor body area networks, owing to its low-power, low data rate and low-cost features. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement optimized MAC protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4 dubbed RMAC. The proposed protocol aims to enhance the reliability and to extend the network life time, by reducing energy consumption. NS2 simulator is used for the implementation of the protocol and for the performance evaluation in comparison with the Standard IEEE 802.15.4. The simulation results show that our protocol outperforms the Standard in terms of reliability and network lifetime.

Full Text:



Stefanie Ettelt, Ellen Nolte, Nicholas Mays, SarahThomson and Martin McKee, health care outside hospital, accessing generalist and specialist care in eight countries, WHO Regional Office for Europe. (2006)

Rialle V, Lamy JB, Noury N, Bajolle L “Telemonitoring of patients at home: A software agent approach”Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 72(3):257-68 • December 2003.

Lu G., Krishnamachari B. and Raghavendra C.S, Performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for low-rate low-power wireless networks. IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications, pp.701-706. (2004)

Zheng. Jianliang and Lee. Myung J, A comprehensive performance study of IEEE 802.15. 4, IEEE Press Book Los Alamitos. (2004)

Wei-Sheng Si and Cheng-Zhi Li “RMAC : A Reliable MAC Protocol Supporting Multicast for Wirleless Ad Hok Networks. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, vol.20, N0.5, (2005) pp.702-712

Zhijia Chen, Chuang Lin, Hao Wen and Hao Yin, An Analytical Model for Evaluating IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CAProtocol in Low-Rate Wireless Application. 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, AINAW’07; 2:899-904. May 2007

Jin Soo Choi and Meng Chu Zhou, Performance analysis of ZigBee-based body sensor networks, IEEE International Conference on Systems Man and Cybernetics (SMC), pp. 2427-2433. October 2010

Sharma. R., Gupta S.K., Suhas K.K. and Kashyap, G., Performance Analysis of Zigbee Based Wireless Sensor Network for Remote Patient Monitoring, Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), April pp.58-62. (2014)

Amol Patel and Raksha Upadhyay Performance analysis of Slotted CSMA/CA MAC protocol under different parameters for static IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS). pp.164-169(2013).

Li. Changle, Li. Huan-Bang and Kohno. Ryuji, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4 for wireless bodyarea network (WBAN). ICC Workshops. IEEE International Conference on communication, pp.1-5. (2009)

Koubaa. Anis, Alves. Mari, Tovar. Eduardo and Cunha. Andre “An implicit GTS allocation mechanism in IEEE 802.15.4 for time-sensitive wireless sensor networks: theory and practice” Real-Time Systems, Springer US; 39: 169-204. (2008)

Cheng. Liang, Bourgeois. Anu G. and Zhang. Xin, A new GTS allocation scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 networks with improved bandwidth utilization, ISCIT’07. International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies, pp.1143–1148. (2007)

Der-Chen Huang, Hsiang-Wei Wu and Yi-Wei Lee “A Cluster-Tree-Based GTS Allocation Scheme for IEEE802.15.4 MAC Layer” Six the International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), pp.524-528, (2012).

SaeyoungAhn, Jaejoon Cho and Sunshin An. “Slotted Beacon Scheduling Using ZigBee Cskip Mechanism” Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications SENSORCOMM ’08, pp.103-108. (August 2008)

Huang. Der-Chen, Lee. Yi-Wei and Wu.Hsiang-Weititle “An efficient GTS allocation scheme for IEEE 802.15. 4 MAClayer” Computer Science and Information Systems;10: 651-665 (2013)

A. Koubaa, M. Alves and E. Tovar ”GTS allocation analysis in IEEE 802.15.4 for real-time wireless sensor networks, , IPDPS 2006. 20th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, April 2006.

Koubaa. Anis, Alves. Mario and Tovar. Eduardo “Energy and delay trade-off of the GTS allocation mechanism in IEEE802.15.4 for wireless sensor networks” International Journal of Communication Systems; 20: 791-808 (2007)

B. Shrestha, E. Hossain, S. Camorlinga, R. Krishnamoorthy and D. Niyato ”An Optimization-Based GTS Allocation Scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC with Application to Wireless Body-Area Sensor Networks, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp.1-6 May 2010.

Gengfa Fang and E. Dutkiewicz “Body MAC: Energy efficient TDMA-based MAC protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks” 9th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology. ISCIT 2009, pp.1455-1459. September 2009

Elias. Jocelyne and Mehaoua. Ahmedtitle “Energy-aware topology design for wireless body area networks” IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), organization, pp.3409-3410. (2012)

Otto. Chris, Milenkovic. Aleksandar and Sanders. Coreyand Jovanov. Emil, “System Architecture of a Wireless BodyArea Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring” J.Mob. Multimed; 1: 307-326. (2005)

B. Braem, B. Latre, I. Moerman, C. Blondiaand E. Reusens, W. Joseph, L. Martens and P. Demeester ”The Need for Cooperation and Relaying in Short-Range High Path Loss Sensor Networks” International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, pp.566-571, October 2007

Xigang Huang, Hangguan Shan, Xuemin Shen, On energy efficiency of cooperative communications inwireless body area network, Wireless Communications andNetworking Conference (WCNC), pp.=1097-1101, March 2011

A. G. Ruzzelli, R. Jurdak, G. M.P O’Hare and P. Der Stok Energy-efficient Multi-hop Medical Sensor Networking, Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMOBILE International Workshop on Systems and Networking Support for Healthcare and Assisted Living Environments, Health Net’07,ACM San Juan, Puerto Rico, pp.37-42. (2007)

HyungTae Kwon and SuKyoung Lee “Energy-efficient multi-hop transmission in body area networks” IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp.2142-2146 (2009)

Ehyaie Aida, Hashemi Massoud and Khadivi Pejman “Using relay network to increase life time in wireless body area sensor networks” IEEE International Symposium on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks & Workshops. pp. 1-6 (2009)

E. Reusens, W. Joseph, B. Latre, B. Braemand G. Vermeeren, E. Tanghe, L. Martens, I. Moerman and C. Blondia Characterization of On-Body Communication Channel and Energy Efficient Topology Design for Wireless Body Area Networks, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 13:933-945. November 2009

IEEE compagny, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitanarea networks–Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), IEEE Std 802.15.4-2011 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.15.4-2006), pp.1-314, September 2011

Yang Xiao, Miao Peng, J. Gibson, G.G. Xie, Ding-Zhu Du and A.V. Vasilakos ”Tight Performance Bounds of Multi hop Fair Access for MAC Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks and Underwater Sensor Networks” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11:1538-1554, October 2012

Yanjun Yao, Qing Cao and A.V. Vasilakos “EDAL: An Energy-Efficient, Delay-Aware, and Lifetime-Balancing Data Collection Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE 10thInternational Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), pp.182-190, October 2013.

Yao, Y., Cao, Q. and A.V. Vasilakos “EDAL: An Energy-Efficient, Delay-Aware, and Lifetime-Balancing Data Collection Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 23:810-823 Juin2015

Cai Xuelian, Li Jiandong, Yuan Jingjing, Zhu Wuand and Wu Qianqian “Energy-aware adaptive topology adjustment in wireless body area networks” Telecommunication Systems, Springer, pp.1–14. (2014)

Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner and Chandrakasan Ananthaand Balakrishnan Hari “Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless micro sensor networks” Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on System sciences 2:10. (2000)

NS-2 group, the network simulator NS2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/,URI:http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/, publisher=ns ns-users@isi.edu, 2011.

Choi. W and Lee SeokMin “Implementation of the IEEE 802.15.4 module with CFP in NS2, Telecommunication system” (2013) URI: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11235-011-9548-7.

Guerreiro. André, Souza. Jeferson and Rufino. José “Improving NS-2 network simulator for IEEE 802.15. 4 standard operation, 5th Simposio de Informatica (INFORUM). (2013)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

E-Journal © ECTI Asscoiation, Thailand, Contact Us.
Web: http://ecti-eec.org/